Publications

Peer review journal publications

★ deLorenzo V. and Schmidt M. 2017. The do-it-yourself movement as a source of innovation in biotechnology – and much more. Microbial Biotechnology DOI: 10.1111/1751-7915.12715 

★ Radchuk O, Kerbe W, Schmidt M. 2016. Homo Politicus meets Homo Ludens: Public participation in serious life science games. Public Understanding of Science (doi:10.1177/0963662516653030)

★ Schmidt M, deLorenzo V. 2016. Synthetic bugs on the loose: containment options for deeply engineered (micro)organisms. Current Opinion in Biotechnology Vol. 38:90–96

★ Schmidt M, Meyer A, Cserer A. 2015. The film festival Bio:fiction: sensing possibilities how a debate about synthetic biology might evolve. Public Understanding of Science. Vol. 24(5) 619–635

★ Kerbe W, Schmidt M. 2015. Splicing boundaries: the experiences of bioart exhibition visitors. Leonardo. Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 128–136

★ Wei W, Pei L, Schmidt M and Xu J. 2014. Biosafety Considerations of Synthetic Biology: Lessons Learned from Transgenic Technology. Curr Synthetic Sys Biol. Vol. 2:3

★ Seyfried G, Pei L, Schmidt M. 2014. European Do-it-yourself (DIY) Biology: beyond the hope, hype and horror. BioEssays. Vol. 36(6)

★ Meyer A, Cserer A, Schmidt M. 2013. Frankenstein 2.0.: Identifying and characterising synthetic biology engineers in science fiction films. Life Sciences, Society and Policy. Vol: 9:9.

★ Torgersen T, Schmidt M. 2013. Frames and comparators: How might a debate on synthetic biology evolve? Futures. Vol. 48: 44-54

★ Guan Z, Schmidt M, Pei L, Wei W, Ma K. 2013. Biosafety considerations of synthetic biology in the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition. Bioscience. Vol. 63 (1):25-34

★ Acevedo-Rocha CG, Fang G, Schmidt M, Ussery DW, Danchin A. 2013. From essential to persistent genes: a functional approach to constructing synthetic life. Trends in Genetics. Vol. 29 (5): 273-279

★ Guan Z, Pei L, Schmidt M, Wei W. 2012. Assessment and management of biosafety in synthetic biology. Biodiversity Science. 20(2):138-150. In Chinese (合成生物学生物安全风险评价与管理)

★ Schmidt M, de Lorenzo V. 2012. Synthetic constructs in/for the environment: Managing the interplay between natural and engineered Biology. FEBSLetters. Vol. 586: 2199-2206

★ Pei L, Schmidt M, Wei W. 2011. Synthetic biology: an emerging research field in China. Biotechnology Advances. Vol 29(6):804-814.

★ Pei L, Schmidt M, Wei W. 2011. Can synthetic biology bring sustainable development to China? Biochemist. Vol 33(5):14-18

★ Ford-Lloyd BV, Schmidt M, Armstrong SJ, Barazani O, Engels J, Hadas R, Hammer K, Kell SP, Kang D, Khoshbakht K, Li Y, Long C, Lu B-R, Ma K, Nguyen VT, Qiu L, Ge S, Wei W, Zhang Z, Maxted N. 2011. Crop Wild Relatives—Undervalued, Underutilized and under Threat? BioScience. Vol. 61, No. 7: pp. 559-565 DOI: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.7.10

★ Pei L, Gaisser S, Schmidt M. 2011. Synthetic Biology in the view of European public funding organisation. Public Understanding of Sciences.  Vol.1: 1–14

★ Schmidt M, Pei L. 2011. Synthetic Toxicology: Where engineering meets biology and toxicology. Toxicological Sciences. 120(S1), S204–S224

★ Schmidt M. 2010. Xenobiology: a new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool. BioEssays. Vol.32(4): 322-331

★ Schmidt M. 2009. Special issue: societal aspects of synthetic biology. Systems and Synthetic Biology. Vol.3(1-4):1-2

★ Schmidt M, Ganguli-Mitra A, Torgersen H, Kelle A, Deplazes A & Biller-Andorno N. 2009. A Priority Paper for the Societal and Ethical Aspects of Synthetic Biology. Systems and Synthetic Biology Vol.3(1-4):3-7

★ Ganguli-Mitra A, Schmidt M, Torgersen H, Deplazes A & Biller-Andorno N. 2009. Of Newtons and Heretics. Nature Biotechnology. Vol 27(4):321 – 322

★ Schmidt M, Torgersen H, Ganguli-Mitra A, Kelle A, Deplazes A, Biller-Andorno N. 2008. SYNBIOSAFE e-conference: online community discussion on the societal aspects of synthetic biology. Systems and Synthetic Biology Vol. 2(1-2):7-17

★ Schmidt M. 2008. Diffusion of synthetic biology: a challenge to biosafety. Systems and Synthetic Biology. Vol. 2(1-2):1-6

★ Schmidt M, Wei W, Polthanee A, Thanh Lam L, Chuong S, Qiu L-J, Banterng P, Thi Dung P, Glaser S, Gretzmacher R, Hager V, de Korte E, Li Y-H, The Phuong N, Ro S, Zhang Z-Y, Zhou H-F. 2008. Ambiguity in a trans-disciplinary stakeholder assessment of neglected and underutilized species in China, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. Biodiversity and Conservation. Vol 17(7):1645-1666

★ Schmidt M. 2006. Public will fear biological accidents, not just attacks. Nature. Vol 441(7097):1048

★ Schmidt M and Bothma G. 2006. Risk assessment for transgenic sorghum in Africa: crop-to-crop gene flow in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Crop Science. Vol. 46(2):790-798

★ Schmidt M and Wei W. 2006. Loss of agro-biodiversity, uncertainty and perceived control: a comparative risk perception study in Austria and China. Risk Analysis. Vol. 26(2):455-470

★ Schmidt M. and Bothma G. 2005. Indications of Bee Pollination in Sorghum and its Implications for Transgenic Biosafety. International Sorghum and Millet Newslettter. ICRISAT. No.45:72-75

★ Schmidt M. and Mayer V. 2001. Herbivore protection by live-stem inhabiting ants of Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae). Verh. Ges. Ökol. 31: 10.

★ Schmidt M. and Mayer V. 2000. Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae): eine wenig bekannte Ameisen-Pflanze. – Österr. Botanikertagung in Illmitz – Linzer biol. Beitr. 32: 695-696

 

Books 

★ Schmidt M. (ed.) 2012. Synthetic Biology: Industrial and Environmental Applications. Wiley-VCH ★ Schmidt M. Kelle A. Ganguli A, de Vriend H. (Eds.) 2009. Synthetic Biology. The Technoscience and its Societal Consequences. Springer Academic Publishing

Book chapters

★ Schmidt M, Pei L, Budisa N. (forthcoming) Xenobiology: State-of-the-art, Ethics and Philosophy of new-to-nature organisms. In: Zhao H and Zeng A-P. (eds.) Synthetic Biology – Metabolic Engineering. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology

★ Seyfried G, Schmidt M. (forthcoming) Standardisierte Biologie – Ein wissenschaftlicher Kochworkshop. Proceedings of the Prototype Nature Conference and Workshop.

★ Pei, L. and Schmidt M. 2016. Sustainable Assessment on Using Bacterial Platform to Produce High-Added-Value Products from Berries through Metabolic Engineering. Systems Biology Application in Synthetic Biology. S. Singh (ed), Springer71-78

★ Kerbe W., Khodhzaeva A., Schmidt M. 2015. Using Short Films for Public Engagement with Synthetic Biology. Proceedings form the 2015 PACITA Conference in Berlin: The Next Horizon of Technology Assessment.

★ Schmidt M, Pei L. (2015 forthcoming). Synthetic Biology: From Genetic Engineering 2.0 to Responsible Research and Innovation. Wiley-Blackwell Biotechnology Series

★ Schmidt M, Pei L. 2015. Improving Biocontainment with Synthetic Biology: Beyond Physical Containment. In: Timmis, KN., Nogales B, McGenity TJ. Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology

★ Schmidt M, Meinhart C, Radchuk O. 2014. A serious game for public engagement in synthetic biology. In: Göbel, S., Wiemeyer, J. (Eds.) Games for training, Education, Health and Sports. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Serious Games, GameDays 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer International Publishing: Darmstadt, Germany

★ Schmidt M, Pei L, Kelle A, Wei W. 2014. Biohacking: Keeping Synthetic Biology Research Safe and Responsible Among Amateur Biologists. P31-42 in: Friesinger G, Herwig J (eds.) (2014) The Art of Reverse Engineering. Open-Dissect-Rebuild. Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld

★ Schmidt M. 2014. Laboratorium: Kunst und Naturwissenschaften.  Dokumentationsband des Jahresthemas 2011/12  „ArteFakte. Wissen ist Kunst – Kunst ist Wissen“ der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

★ Schmidt M. 2013. Safeguarding the Genetic Firewall with Xenobiology. In: ISGP. 2013. 21st Century Borders/Synthetic Biology: Focus on Responsibility and Governance.

★ Schmidt M. 2013. Inszenierung der Synthetischen Biologie in Wissenschaft, Medien, Film und Kunst. In: Deutscher Ethikrat (Hg.): Werkstatt Leben. Bedeutung der Synthetischen Biologie für Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft. Berlin.

★ Torgersen H, Schmidt M. 2012. Perspektiven der Kommunikation für die Synthetische Biologie. Weitze, M-D, Pühler A, Heckl W.M., Müller-Röber B, Renn O, Weingart P. Wess G. (Hrsg.) 2012. Biotechnologie-Kommunikation. Kontroversen, Analysen, Aktivitäten (acatech) DISKUSSION), Heidelberg u.a.: Springer Verlag

★ Gazsó A, Wächter P, Schmidt M, Meyer A. 2012. Pilotstudie Converging Technologies. p. 213-220. In: Decker M, Grunwald A, Knapp M. (Eds.) 2012. Der Systemblick auf Innovation. Technikfolgenabschätzung in der Technikgestaltung. Reihe: Gesellschaft – Technik – Umwelt. Neue Folge 16. Edition Sigma

★ Schmidt M. 2012. Xenobiologie: Neues Leben mit integrierter Biosicherheit. In: Boldt J, Müller O, Maio G. 2012. Leben schaffen?Philosophische und ethische Reflexionen zur Synthetischen Biologie. Mentis, Paderborn

★ Cserer A, Seiringer A, Schmidt M. 2011. Darstellungen der Synthetischen Biologie. p369-386. In : Dabrock P, Bölker M, Braun M, Ried J (Hg.) (2011), Was ist Leben – im Zeitalter seiner technischen Machbarkeit? Beiträge zur Ethik der Synthetischen Biologie. Freiburg, Alber

★ Schmidt M. 2011. Biosicherheit und Synthetische Biologie. Kapitel 11 in: Pühler A. Müller-Röber B, Weitze MD (Hrsg.). Synthetische Biologie. Acatech Diskussion

★ Schmidt M, Giersch G. 2011. DNA Synthesis and Security. In: DNA Microarrays, Synthesis and Synthetic DNA. Editor: Marissa J. Campbell. Nova Publishers

★ Pei L, Schmidt M, Wei W. 2011. Conversion of Biomass into Bioplastics and Their Potential Environmental Impacts. Chapter 3 in: Elnashar M (Ed.). 2011. Biotechnology of Biopolymers, InTech , ISBN: 978-953-307-179-4

★ Schmidt M, Dando M, Deplazes A. 2011. Dealing with the outer reaches of synthetic biology. Biosafety, biosecurity, IPR and ethical challenges of chemical synthetic biology. In: Luisi PL (Ed) 2011. Chemical Synthetic Biology. Wiley Publishing

★ Giersch G, Schmidt M. 2010. Sicherheitspolitische Herausforderungen durch die Synthetischen Biologie: Neue Kriegsführung durch DNA-Synthese. Die Politische Meinung. Dezember Ausgabe. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung

★ Schmidt M. 2010. Living Technology. In: Bedau M, Guldborg Hansen P, Parke E, Rasmussen S. Living Technology: 5 Questions. Automatic Press/VIP

★ Schmidt M, Torgersen H, Schneider-Voss S, Gaszo A. 2010. Perception of Complexity, Trust, Knowledge, and Communication Skills in Gene Science: A Survey among Different Stakeholders in Austria. In Lavino JG and Neumann RB (eds). 2010. Psychology of Risk Perception. Nova Science Publishing

★ Schmidt M. 2009. Do I understand what I can create? Biosafety issues in synthetic biology. Chapter 6 in: Schmidt M. Kelle A. Ganguli A, de Vriend H. (Eds.) 2009. Synthetic Biology. The Technoscience and its Societal Consequences. Springer Academic Publishing (July 2009)

★ Schmidt M, Lam NT, Hoanh MT, and Padulosi S. 2009. Promoting neglected and underutilised tuberous plant species in Vietnam. In: Eds. Haas R, Canavari M, Slee B, Tong C, and Anurugsa B. 2009. Looking East Looking West: Organic and Quality Food Marketing in Asia and Europe. Wageningen Academic Publishers

★ Schmidt M. 2006. The future of public perception of gene therapy in Europe, an educated guess. Chapter 17 in: Niewöhner J. and Tannert C. (eds.) 2006. Gene Therapy: Prospective technology assessment in its societal context. Elsevier

 

Scientific reports

★ Vermeire T. et al. 2015. Final Opinion on Synthetic Biology III: Risks to the environment and biodiversity related to synthetic biology and research priorities in the field of synthetic biology. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR)

★ Vermeire T. et al. 2015. Final Opinion on Synthetic Biology II: Risk assessment methodologies and safety aspects. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR)

★ Vermeire T. et al. 2014. Final Opinion on Synthetic Biology: Definition. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR)

★ Schmidt M, Torgersen H. 2012. Standardising Synthetic Biology: Contributing to the Bioeconomy? Chapter 6 in: Making Perfect Life Bio-engineering (in) the 21st Century. Final Report European Governance Challenges in Bio-engineering Deliverable No.5 of the STOA Project “Making Perfect Life”Commissioned by STOA and carried out by ETAG

★ Schmidt M, Meyer A, Wächter P, Gazsó A. 2011. Converging Technologies in Österreich. Report for the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT)

★ Torgersen H, Schmidt M, Kastenhofer K. 2010. Engineering of living artefacts: synthetic biology. pp 11-50 in: van Est R (eds.) Making Perfect Life – Bio-Engineering (in) the 21st Century. Interim Study, Monitoring Report, IP/A/STOA/FWC-2008-96/LOT6/ SC1, Science and Technology Options Assessment STOA. Brussels: European Parliament.

★ Schmidt M and Wei W. 2008. Auswirkungen des Einsatzes transgenen Saatguts auf die wirtschaftlichen, gesellschaftlichen und politischen Strukturen in China (engl.: Impact of the Deployment of Transgenic Seeds on the Economic, Societal and Political Structures in China). Special Report for the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the German Parliament. Part of the OTA Project “Transgenic Seeds in Developing Countries”. English summary

★ Bogner A, Cserer A, Gaszò A, Jonas S, Konta B, Kronberger N, Peissl W, Ratzer B, Schmidt M, Schneider-Voß S, Torgersen H, Tumpej M, Wagner W. 2007, Post-Genomics and Complexity (POCO) – The Post-Genomic Era: How does increasing complexity change the debate on genetics? Report for the Austrian Ministry for Education, Science and Culture’s GEN-AU Ethical, Legal and Social Affairs (ELSA) Program.

★ Schmidt M, Banterng P, Chuong S, Dung PT, Glaser S, Hager V, deKorte E, Lam N, Li Y-H, Meyer A, Phuong NT, Polthanee A, Qiu LY,   del Rio Murillo A, Sánchez V, Sophoanrinth R, Wei W, Zhang ZY, Zhou HF. 2007. AGROFOLIO – Benefiting from an Improved Agricultural Portfolio in Asia. Final Report. FP6-2002-INCO-DEV/SSA-1–026293

★ ITA (Torgersen H, Fries R, Gaszò A, Schmidt M) 2006, Nanotechnologie-Begleitmaßnahmen: Stand und Implikationen für Österreich, (engl.: European research on the societal and risk aspects of nanotechnology – a status report). Report for the Austrian Ministry for Traffic, Innovation and Technology.

★ Gazsó, A., Kromp, W., Schmidt, M.R. and Berger, G. (2005). Fusion and Public Risk Perception in German Speaking Countries. Report on EFDA task TW3-TRE-FESA/B, contract 03- 1089, Institute if Risk Research Vienna, EFDA.

★ Gazsó, A., Kromp, W. and Schmidt, M.R. (2004). Fusion and the public opinion experience from recent risk communication processes. Report on EFDA task TW1-TRE-FPOA, Institute of Risk Research Vienna, EFDA

 

Blogs

★  Schmidt M. 2017. The Gene Editing Bazaar. Nature Biotechnology – Bioentrepreneur – Trade Secrets

★  deLorenzo V. and Schmidt M. 2015. The Power Game: Setting standards for synthetic biology. Nature Biotechnology – Bioentrepreneur – Trade Secrets

★  Radchuk O. and Schmidt M. 2015. Synthetic biology gets inspiration from the sea  synbio.plos.org

★  Schmidt M. 2015. Unlocking Marine Biotechnology. Nature Biotechnology – Bioentrepreneur – Trade Secrets

★  Radchuk O. and Schmidt M. 2015. Standards in Synthetic Biology Workshop. synbio.plos.org

★ Torgersen H. und Schmidt M. (2013) Sag, wie ist die Synthetische Biologie? Die Macht von Vergleichen für das Image einer Technologie. Scienceblogs.at

★ Schmidt M. 2012. Building a biological Rosetta Stone: genetic metacodes in the making

★ Schmidt M. 2012. Forskere vil opbygge nye genetiske meta-koder. videnskab.dk (in Danish)

★ Schmidt M, Fuchs S. 2012. Obsolescence and synthetic biology. Arup Thoughts.

★ Schmidt M, 2012. The Green Gold Rush. Nature Biotechnology – Bioentrepreneur – Trade Secrets

Other publications

★ deLorenzo V and Schmidt M. 2015. Standards for Synthetic Biology: the technical challenge and the power game. SYNENERGENE Newsletter

★ Schmidt M, Meinhart C, Radchuk O. Communicating synthetic biology via SYNMOD game. ISAGA (International Simulation and Gaming Association) conference in Dornbirn, Austria. July 2014.

★ Radchuk O., Meinhart C, Schmidt M, A serious game for public engagement in synthetic biology. GameDays 2014. Darmstadt, Germany. 1-4 April 2014.

★ Schmidt M, Meinhart C, Radchuk O. 2014. Bridging science and society: communicating synthetic biology. Poster at the 2nd EMBO Conference on Visualizing Biological Data (VIZBI 2014). EMBL-Heidelberg in Germany. 5-7 March 2014

★ Kerbe W. 2013. What is life – in everyday discourse? Poster PA-135 at the SB 6.0 Conference, London, UK. 9-11 July, 2013

★ Radchuk O, Meinhart C, Schmidt M. 2013. Gamifying Synthetic Biology: the SYNMOD mobile game. Poster PA-239 at the SB 6.0 Conference, London, UK. 9-11 July, 2013

★ Schmidt M, Pei L, Marliere P. 2013. Xenobiology and Biosafety: Challenges and Opportunities. Poster PA-265 at the SB 6.0 Conference, London, UK. 9-11 July, 2013

★ Torgersen H, Schmidt M, 2013. Frames and comparators: the Case of Synthetic Biology. Session 46: Practices of Risk and Technology Deliberation: Studying the Dynamics Connecting and Disconnecting Experts, Policy-Makers and Publics in Conflicts over Technology. 8th International Interpretive Policy Analysis Conference (IPA). Vienna, Austria. 3-5 July, 2013

★ Schmidt M. 2012. Xenobiologie: Andere Lebensformen sind machbar. (Editorial) BIOspektrum Vol.18(6): 567

★ Schmidt M, 2012. Xenobiología: una nueva forma de vida o última trinchera en bioseguridad. Pasajes, Vida artificial, N. 38 (in Spanish)

★ Kerbe W, Schmidt M. Engineering Life? Synthetische Biologie und die Technisierung des Lebendigen. Soziale Technik 2/2012

★ Schmidt M, Torgersen H, Kuffner A., Bedstedt B, Gram S. 2012. World Wide Views on Biodiversity – Information Booklet. 

★ Reardon S. 2011. Visions of Synthetic Biology (article about the synth-ethic exhibition based on interview with M. Schmidt) Science Vol 333 (6047):1242-3

★ Hauser J and Schmidt M. 2011. Gallery Guide for the SYNTH-ETHIC exhibition in the Museum of Natural History in Vienna, May 14  – June 28, 2011.

★ Gazso A, Wächter P, Schmidt M, Meyer A. 2011. Converging Technologies – A Pilot Study in Austria. Third Annual Conference of the Society for the Study of Nanoscience and Emerging Technologies. Tempe, Arizona. 8-10 November 2011

★ Schmidt M and Hauser J. 2011. SYNTH-ETHIC: an art-science exhibition about synthetic biology. Poster Synthetic Biology 5.0. Conference. USA. 15-17 June 2011

★ Schmidt M. 2011. Xenobiology: An orthogonal form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool. Poster Synthetic Biology 5.0. Conference. USA. 15-17 June 2011

★ Schmidt M, Meinhart C, Beckmann A. 2011. Bio:Fiction – the synthetic biology science, art and film festival. Poster Synthetic Biology 5.0. Conference. USA. 15-17 June 2011

★ Cserer A, Meyer A, Schmidt M. 2011. Cinema and Synthetic Biology. Poster Synthetic Biology 5.0. Conference. USA. 15-17 June 2011

★ Pei L, Wei W, Schmidt M. 2011. Current Development of Synthetic Biology in China. Poster Synthetic Biology 5.0. Conference. USA. 15-17 June 2011

★ Schmidt M. 2011. Synthetic biology: planning for a secure future. American Institute for the Biological Sciences.

★ Schmidt M. 2010. Verstehen wir, was wir kreieren können? (Editorial) BIOspektrum Vol.95(19): 493

★ Schmidt, M., 2006, Biosicherheit und Synthetische Biologie: Eine neue Herausforderung für die TA? Austrian ITA-Newsletter Juni 2006, pp. 15-16

★ Schmidt M, Gazsò A, Berger G. 2005. Governance, Technology and the Future of Energy; Perceived Realities and Desires. Proceedings of the SRA-E Conference: 12-14 September 2005, Como, Italy

★ Schmidt 2004. Loss of agro-biodiversity in Vavilov centers, with a special focus on the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PhD thesis. University of Vienna

★ Schmidt M. and Wei. W. 2004. Genetic Erosion As A Global Emerging Risk; A Comparative Risk Perception Study Between Austria And China. Proceedings of the SRA-E Conference: 15-17 November 2004

★ Schmidt M. 2003. Risk Map For Probable GM-Induced Genetic Erosion In Vavilov Centers. Proceedings of the conference on “Introgression from Genetically Modified Plants into wild relatives and its consequences” ESF . 21 – 24 January 2003, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

★ Schmidt M. and Gazsó A. 2002. From Biodiversity To Biodemocracy? Release Of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs) And Uncertainty. Proceedings of The Annual Conference Of The Society For Risk Analysis. July 21-24th. Berlin

★ Mayer V and Schmidt M. 2002. Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae) y su socio mirmecófito Azteca. Pp. 267 in: Rangel-Ch., Aguirre-C., J. & Andrade-C., M. G. (eds.), Libro de resumenes octavo congreso latinoamericano y segundo colombiano de Botánica. Instituto de Sciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. (Poster presentation).

★ Schmidt MR 2001. Interactions between Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae) and its live- stem inhabiting ants. Master thesis (Diplomarbeit): Univ. Wien, Inst. Für Botanik, Formal- und Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät.